目的： 老年健康问题逐渐受到各国政府关注，改善建成环境被视为改善健康的一项战略方案。研究主要探究建成环境诸因素对老年人健康的影响机制，以期改善建成环境特征，促进老年人健康状况方法： 随机抽取南京市32个社区的499名老年人，采用问卷调查基本信息，三维加速度计和GPS 测量老年人户外活动强度、时间和活动轨迹，利用GIS提取客观建成环境因素，使用AMOS 22.0对结构方程模型进行检验结果： 人口密度和街道连通性对老年人健康产生直接影响，效应量分别为0.100、 0.121；人口密度、交通站点数和至商业场所距离通过体力活动对老年人健康产生间接影响，效应量分别为0.041、0.067、0.086。研究还发现体力活动的中介作用在老年人健康状况与建成环境诸因素之间存在性别差异结论： 建成环境诸因素中人口密度、街道连通性、交通站点数和至商业场所距离对老年人健康产生正向促进作用；建成环境诸因素对老年人健康的影响程度为：人口密度＞街道连通性＞至商业场所距离＞交通站点数；建成环境诸因素对老年人健康状况的影响存在性别差异。
The health problem of the elderly has gradually attracted the attention of governments all over the world. Improving the built environment is regarded as a strategic plan to improve health，based on which，this study mainly explores the impact mechanism of various factors of built environment on the health of the elderly，in order to improve the built environment and the health status of the elderly. Therefore，499 elderly people from 32 communities in Nanjing were randomly selected as participants for the questionnaire survey. Three-dimensional accelerometer and GPS were used to measure the outdoor activity intensity，time and activity trajectory of the elderly. The objective environmental factors were extracted by GIS，and the structural equation model was tested by AMOS 22.0. The results suggest that population density and street connectivity had a direct impact on the health of the elderly，and the effect amounts were 0.100 and 0.121 respectively； Population density，the number of traffic stations and the distance to commercial places have an indirect impact on the health of the elderly through physical activity，and the effect amounts are 0.041，0.067 and 0.086 respectively. The study also found gender differences in the mediating effect of physical activity on the relationship between built environment and the health of the elderly. It is hence concluded that among the factors of community built environment，population density，street connectivity，number of traffic stations and distance to commercial places have a positive effect on the health of the elderly； The influence degree of community built environment factors on the health of the elderly is in the order of population density ＞ street connectivity ＞distance to commercial places＞number of traffic stations； Gender difference also affects the relationship between built environmental factors and the health status of the elderly.