The standardized usage of historical materials is the key to ensuring the quality of the research results of Martial Arts history，which is easy to know and difficult to do. In order to appeal to the academic circles to pay attention to the normative use of historical materials，this study uses the method of documentary materials to re-examine the use of historical materials in the previous discourse on “prohibiting folk martial arts in the Song Dynasty” from two aspects：historical data identification and historical data interpretation，and points out its problems as well as helps look into the Song government’s attitude towards folk martial arts. The research believes that the problems in terms of usage mainly includes：① not paying attention to the examination and identification of historical materials，misunderstanding the prohibition of civilians from holding prohibited weapons as evidence of the prohibition of civil martial arts； ② lack of restoration of historical context， ignoring the historical facts that hooligans，bandits and other groups “violated the ban with force”；③violated the principle of objectivity，selectively ignoring the rebuttal evidence such as urban martial arts associations and rural communal selfdefense personel in the Song Dynasty. It is indicated that the Song Dynasty did not interfere with ordinary people’s martial arts behaviors with regard to self-defense，family defense and national defense. What it prohibited was some groups or organizations “violating the prohibition with force” and obstructing social order. Although the feudal regime is the product and manifestation of irreconcilable class contradictions，its important function is to protect the society from being destroyed in the endless struggle. When groups such as hooligans and bandits “violate the prohibition using force” and obstruct social order， any regime of any nature has the right and qualification to regulate them.